25 febrero 2012

¿Cómo me protejo de los Virus de Computadora?

Esta es una pregunta que constantemente realizan amigos, por ello preparé este artículo que espero pueda ayudarte a proteger y/o recuperar tu información digital.

¿Qué es un virus de computadora?

Un virus es un programa, que como cualquier otro programa, debe ser ejecutado para que actúe. Puedes tener archivos infectados o virus en su computadora, que no lo afectarán hasta que los ejecutes o abras.

Si quieres que tu computadora no se infecte, revisa regularmente tu PC con dos o tres antivirus actualizados, pero nunca tengas más de un antivirus instalado, usa uno siempre activo y los otros para revisar.

Tener dos o más antivirus activos no es recomendable ya que dependiendo del sistema operativo que uses podrían ocurrir conflictos entre ellos.

¿Cómo puedo contagiar mi PC con un virus?

Hay muchas formas, sin embargo, entre las comunes son:

- Mediante la inserción de un dispositivo o memoria contagiada (Flash memory, CD, disquete, cámara fotográfica, celular, mp4 player, etc.) abierto directamente en tu computadora.

- Abrir correos electrónicos con archivos adjuntos no solicitados ya sean de extraños o de nuestros mismos contactos, algunos con títulos muy llamativos como:"Mira esta mi foto, está genial"

- Ingresar a sitios web desconocidos o de dudoso contenido, especialmente esos que te incitan a hacer clic en algún enlace como: "Haz ganado un IPHONE 4 gratis, clic aquí".

- Hacer clic en algún enlace o link enviado mediante chat o mensajería instantánea (Messenger, Facebook, ICQ, Skype, etc.)

- Descargar software pirata, música, mp3 ó videos no autorizados por internet ó de sitios web dudosos.

- Por último, aunque menos probable, es si ingresas a una red intranet que no conozcas o que no tenga protección y esté conectada a internet, como la de alguna oficina, universidad o café internet.

Consejos para evitar contagiarte de un virus informático

- Jamás ejecutes ningún software sin revisarlo con un antivirus antes (incluidos disquetes, CDs, flash memories, archivos adjuntos a e-mails, archivos bajados por Internet, recibidos vía ICQ, Messenger, Facebook, etc.).

- Debes obligar que quienes usan tu PC, incluyéndote; revisa con tu antivirus los archivos o programas nuevos antes de abrirlos. Un caso bastante común y difícil de solventar, es cuando el PC es usado por niños o adolescentes que viven probando e intercambiando cuánto software caiga en sus manos. En esos casos, si no impones cierta disciplina, debes atenerte a las consecuencias. Se trata de prevenir antes que lamentar.

- Existen programas altamente destructivos (troyanos, gusanos, virus, etc.) que pueden ser enviados automáticamente vía e-mail, adjuntos a un mensaje amistoso, haciéndonos creer que el mismo es de alguien que conocemos, y que por lo tanto, el archivo adjunto lo envía esa persona o contacto. La regla más segura es JAMÁS abrir el archivo adjunto alguno NO SOLICITADO, ni hacer clic en los enlaces enviados mediante chat o mensajería instantánea.

Algunos programas de correo electrónico, que guardan los archivos adjuntos dentro del propio mensaje, pueden hacer que los programas antivirus no identifiquen el virus. Cuando borres un email dudoso o no solicitado, asegúrate de eliminarlo también de la papelera de reciclaje de tu antivirus.

Existe una larga lista de mensajes que en realidad se tratan de bromas o engaños, conocidos en la red como "hoaxes", y que circulan a través del e-mail, advirtiendo sobre "virus" inexistentes en tu computadora. Si no son de tu mismo antivirus, simplemente ignóralos.

Mantén tu antivirus al día. Una actualización diaria es lo aconsejable.

Para reducir la cantidad de mensajes fraudulentos que se propagan a través de la red, y para evitar molestar a otras personas, no reenvíes jamás estos mensajes, y no propagues estas cadenas, a menos que hayas verificado su lugar de origen.

En lo posible, trata de guardar tus archivos importantes en un medio confiable de almacenamiento (CD, DVD, Disco Duro externo, etc.), realiza siempre "backups" o copias de seguridad de tus archivos importantes, usa otras unidades de tu disco duro distintos a la unidad C:/; a los virus les encanta contagiar esta unidad.

¿Qué hago si mi PC ya está contagiada?

Lo que siempre recomiendo a mis amigos es:

- Respalda todos tus archivos "importantes" en otro lado.

- Actualiza tu antivirus, mejor si lo haces conectado al internet.

- Ejecuta tu antivirus unas dos o tres veces, eliminando cualquier virus detectado, hasta que no detecte nada.

- En lo posible cuando realices una nueva instalación de tu sistema operativo, instala inmediatamente un programa antivirus y actualízalo, luego continúa instalando los demás programas.

- Si tu equipo no puede ser curado por tu antivirus, intenta con algún programa antimalware.

- Si no puedes curar tu equipo con un antivirus, antimalware o si ya notaste que se están borrando tus archivos o que tu sistema operativo no arranca, acude a profesionales que pueden rescatar tu información, no acudas a tus amigos o a fanáticos informáticos.

¿Qué antivirus uso?

Personalmente uso el AVIRA (http://www.avira.com/es/avira-free-antivirus), es gratuito, se actualiza sin problemas, liviano y detecta con un sonido ¡bip, bip! cuando encuentra algún archivo infectado en mi PC, alternativamente uso el kaspersky (www.kaspersky.com) ó el ESET NOD32 (http://www.eset.com)

Cuando entro en pánico y necesito más ayuda recurro a estos:

Malwarebytes Anti-Malware Free

(http://www.malwarebytes.org/products/malwarebytes_free)

Dr. Web Cureit (www.freedrweb.com/cureit)



Contacto: victorpatino@gmail.com

Cel: 778–96651

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